Англо-русский глоссарий научных терминов

Поможем повысить качество перевода ваших научных исследований

Данный глоссарий предоставляет актуальную информацию о значении, употреблении и переводе на русский язык англоязычных терминов сферы гуманитарных наук и образования.
Глоссарий включает 100 лексических единиц с указанием их части речи, перевода на русский язык, значения на английском языке, примеров употребления, комментариев и дополнительной информации, а также источников. В качестве примеров употребления приведены реальные коллокации из научной литературы и международной академической практики.

Глоссарий предназначен для работников сферы науки и образования, владеющих английским языком, и может использоваться при описании результатов научных исследований на английском языке, переводе научных статей (аннотаций), а также для обеспечения более точного понимания содержания зарубежных исследований.


Автор и составитель глоссария – Агеева Наталия Сергеевна, к. филол. наук, научный сотрудник центра аналитических исследований и моделирования в образовании НИИ УГО МГПУ

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verb

Придерживаться ч.-л.; следовать ч.-л.
To accept or obey an agreement, decision, or rule

Примеры употребления:
· to abide by law;
· We are all obliged to abide by law at all times.
· How can charities make sure they abide by best practice?"
Синонимы: to obey, to follow, to comply, to observe, to adhere to

Источники:
“Abide by”. Cambridge Dictionary.
“Abide”. Collins Dictionary.
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noun phrase
A range of techniques which are claimed to increase the learner's capacity to absorb and retain information by focusing on learning how to learn
Ускоренное обучение

Примеры употребления:
· Training in the accelerated learning often draws on the theory of multiple intelligences.
· Accelerated learning requires collaboration to speed up the learning process and also involves students immersing themselves in the work itself to learn in context.

Источники:
Wallace, S. (2015). A Dictionary of Education.: Oxford University Press.
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noun

A mark of acknowledgment; an expression of praise
Признание; высокая оценка; награда

Примеры употребления:
· to receive / to earn / to win an accolade
· He received many accolades for his myriad contributions across the field of theoretical physics.
· The Nobel prize has become the ultimate accolade in the sciences.
Синонимы: award, privilege, acclaim

Источники:
“Accolade”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary
“Accolade”. Collins Dictionary
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noun

In education, a policy of holding schools and teachers accountable for students' academic progress by linking such progress with funding for salaries, maintenance, etc.
Подотчетность

Примеры употребления:
· accountability system / measures / mechanism
· Reviews of accountability programs throughout the world provide evidence that accountability is an international issue.
· In the field of education there are three main types of accountability system: (a) compliance with regulations, (b) adherence to professional norms, and (c) results driven.
· At present, accountability systems focus less on compliance and more on results.

Дополнительная информация:
This term is an example of business vocabulary applied in the context of schools and other educational institutions following measures to create a market in education.
Schools are held accountable through such means as performance indicators and rankings.

Источники:
Anderson, J. A (2005). Accountability in education. UNESCO IIEP, International Academy of Education, 26 p.
Wallace, S. (2015). A Dictionary of Education.: Oxford University Press.
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noun phrase

Action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own social or educational practices, their understanding of these practices, and the situation in which the practices.
Исследование в целях выработки мер; одновременно исследование проблемы и поиск ее решения

Примеры употребления:
· to conduct action research;
· Action research by teachers is often justified by the argument that the reality of educational practice is complex, changeable, and cannot always be accurately predicted in advance by general academic knowledge.
· In action research, teachers engage in reflection and change based on information they have systematically gathered and analyzed themselves.
· Action research is carried out through dialog and collaboration with colleagues and others within and outside the school.

Дополнительная информация:
The method has been developed by Kurt Levin: Kurt Lewin's Action Research Model is a problem-solving approach that involves collaboration between researchers and practitioners to identify, analyze, and address real-world issues. It consists of a cyclic process of planning, action, observation, and reflection. In education, action research can be carried out by individual teachers, by a group of teachers, or by teachers in collaboration with academic researchers.


Источники:
Ponte, P. (2010). International Encyclopedia of Education || Action Research as a Tool for Teachers’ Professional Development. 540–547. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-044894-7.00658-8
“Action Research”. Scribbr.
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noun phrase, pl.

Aggregate data refers to numerical or non-numerical information that has been
(1) collected from multiple sources and/or on multiple measures, variables, or individuals; (2) compiled into aggregate data—i.e., summaries of data—typically for the purposes of public reporting or statistical analysis —i.e., examining trends, making comparisons, or revealing information and insights that would not be observable when data elements are viewed in isolation.
Сводные данные

Примеры употребления:
· While aggregate data are essential to understanding how the public-education system is working, aggregate-data reports are generally limited to the identification of broader trends and patterns in education.
· For the most part, the use of aggregate data has not been a controversial topic in public education, primarily because aggregate data present far fewer concerns about student safety and privacy than the collection, sharing, and use of data and personal information about specific students."

Синонимы: aggregated data
Антонимы: disaggregated data (см. соотв. словарную статью)

Источники:
“Aggergate data”. The Glossary of Education Reform
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verb

1. To make corrections in something, such as a text;
2. To change or modify something for the better;

3. To alter formally by modification, deletion, or addition.


1. Исправить, скорректировать (текст);
2. Изменить ч.-л. к лучшему;
3. Внести формальное изменение в документ путем изменения, удаления или добавления информации.

Примеры употребления:
· to amend a manuscript, to amend a situation, to amend a constitution;
· No doubt many readers will wish to expand or amend this list, and many more will want to argue with the points made.
· Member States can amend the treaty creating an organisation and even terminate its existence.

Синонимы:
1. to edit, to rewrite, to reword, to rephrase
2. to improve
3. to modify, change

Источники:
“Amend”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary
British National Corpus

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adj

1. Subordinate, subsidiary;
2. Auxiliary, supplementary.
1. Подчиненный, дочерний (об организации);
2. Вспомогательный, дополнительный.

Примеры употребления:
· ancillary evidence, ancillary expenses, ancillary equipment;
· In the last ten years or so we have developed a number of ancillary services, which have grown out of our core business.
· Scientific development meant the growth of numerous professions ancillary to medicine.

Источники:
“Ancillary”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary
“Ancillary”. Collins Dictionary
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noun phrase

An answer engine or a question answering system is an emerging information service system, which includes technologies such as natural language processing, semantic analysis, information retrieval, and artificial intelligence. It not only allows users to directly ask questions through natural language, but also directly returns accurate and concise answers to users.
Информационная система генерирования ответов на вопросы с использованием естественного языка.

Примеры употребления:
· For those unfamiliar with answer engine optimization, it involves optimizing content for search queries that are phrased as questions, with the aim of appearing as the featured snippet or answer box in search engine results pages.
· While traditional search engines like Google and Bing provide a list of relevant web pages in response to a query, answer engines take it a step further by directly providing concise and accurate answers to specific questions.

Источники:
Zhou, S. (2020). Research on Design of Automatic Question Answering System Based on Convolutional Neural Network. 2020 2nd International Conference on Machine Learning, Big Data and Business Intelligence (MLBDBI), 204-207.
The future of SEO is answer engine optimization. Forbes.
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verb

To determine or discover definitely
Выяснить, установить

Примеры употребления:
· to ascertain current realities
· The task of evaluation is to ascertain whether or not the pre-specified goals (aims and objectives) have been achieved.
· The system will let viewers ascertain the authenticity and accuracy of information given to them.
· We look at digital media—images, audio and video—and we try to ascertain whether or not they've been manipulated.

Источники:
“Ascertain”. Collins Dictionary
British National Corpus
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verb

To increase the size or value of something by adding something to it
Дополнить

Примеры употребления:
· Other chapters, in contrast, will not augment the knowledge of some of the targeted readers.
· The photographs are augmented by commentary obtained from photo elicitation interviews with staff and family members.
· The tool is based on classic innovation diffusion theory, augmented by fifteen years of consulting experience in sustainable development.

Дополнительная информация:
Часто используется как причастие – augmented, e.g. augmented reality (дополненная реальность).

Источники:
“Augment”. Cambridge Dictionary.
Introduction to Sustainability and the Accelerator Tools. Atkisson.
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noun

1. Something that serves as a standard by which others may be measured or judged;
2. A standardized problem or test that serves as a basis for evaluation or comparison (as of computer system performance).
Эталон

Примеры употребления:
· to establish a benchmark;
· His comments came as scientists suggested that a new benchmark was needed to measure machine intelligence.
· The aim was to provide important benchmark data on trends in social attitudes.
Синонимы: reference point

Источники:
“Benchmark”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
“Benchmark”. Collins Dictionary.
British National Corpus.
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noun phrase

A procedure that has been shown by research and experience to produce optimal results and that is established or proposed as a standard suitable for widespread adoption. Typically transversal principles of what has proved valuable despite contextual variation, whilst noting the local variability of such principles.
Лучшие практики

Примеры употребления:
· best practices in education;
· Some comparisons are made with examples of best practices in the United States, using data from an earlier study carried out by the researcher.
· Foremost is a commitment to follow the best practices in environmental management, including energy efficiency, recycling and waste minimization.

Источники:
Mincu, M. Why is school leadership key to transforming education? Structural and cultural assumptions for quality education in diverse contexts. Prospects 52, 231–242 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-022-09625-6
“Best practice”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
British National Corpus.
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noun

A division of a complex whole into its parts or elements; a division into categories, e.g. a statistical breakdown of data.
Разбивка (данных)

Примеры употребления:
· A more detailed breakdown is shown on the graph.
· Below is a breakdown of how the formats compare in three key metrics: How many goals were scored, how higher seeds and home teams fared, and how competitive individual matches were.

Дополнительная информация:
verb: to break down
Синонимы: to analyze, to dissect

Источники:
“Breakdown”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
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noun phrase

A presentation, discussion, or activity that takes place as part of a larger event (such as a conference, convention, or seminar) and for which some of the event's participants temporarily separate themselves from the others.
Секционное заседание (в рамках конференции)

Примеры употребления:
· The sixth symposium hosted by WPI since 2005, this two-day event includes keynote speakers, breakout sessions, and opportunities for attendees to network.
· Wednesday's workshop will include two panel discussions followed by a breakout session with audience input.

Источники:
“Breakout session”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
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noun phrase

Administrative duty, responsibility
Административная нагрузка

Примеры употребления:
· On the one hand, there is a growing volume of complaints concerning bureaucratic burdens on lecturers; and on the other, little apparently being done to address the problem.
· Colleges that have developed the most systematic strategies to reduce bureaucratic burdens on teachers have made them a management priority, committed resources to diagnosing and resolving problems and created management mechanisms to drive the process forward.
Синонимы: administrative burden

Источники:
“Burden”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Martinez, Paul & Pepler, Giles. (2000). Reducing Bureaucratic Burdens on Lecturers. FE Matters.
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noun phrase

Capacity-building is defined as the process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in a fast-changing world.
Наращивание потенциала

Примеры употребления:
· Capacity-building projects;
· The Capacity Building in Higher Education action supports international cooperation projects based on multilateral partnerships between organisations active in the field of higher education.
· Universities in particular can serve as centers of capacity-building through research, innovation and data collection and analysis."
· Capacity Building is a special track for higher educational and other types of institutions within the Erasmus programmes of the European Union.

Источники:
Capacity Building. United Nations.
Capacity Building in Higher Education. Programme Guide. European Union.
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noun phrase

An intensive analysis of an individual unit (such as a person or community) stressing developmental factors in relation to environment. The goal of a case study is a comprehensive in-depth description and analysis of the case. Case study research has an important role in many social sciences including sociology, anthropology, political science, education, organizational studies, psychology, and nursing.
Исследование методом кейс-стади

Примеры употребления:
· Case study research is variously referred to as a methodology, research design, method, research strategy, research approach, style of reasoning.
· An important characteristic of case study research is that the data should be detailed and cover manifold aspects of the case.
· Since an in-depth study is conducted, a case study research allows the researcher the leeway to use any method of data collection which suits their purpose (provided the method is feasible and ethical).

Дополнительная информация:
Case study research includes multiple methods of data collection: qualitative – participant observation, semi- and unstructured interviews, and analysis of documents; quantitative, involving, for example, data produced for administrative purposes or surveys conducted by the researcher.
Также: case study

Источники:
“Case study”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Ylikoski, Petri & Zahle, Julie (2019). Case study research in the social sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 78 (C):1-4.
Priya, A. (2021). Case Study Methodology of Qualitative Research: Key Attributes and Navigating the Conundrums in Its Application. Sociological Bulletin, 70(1), 94-110. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038022920970318

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noun phrase

A place or an organization that is known for doing a particular activity very well, and that is involved in new developments, new ways of working.
Центр совершенства; центр успешных практик

Примеры употребления:
· Jean Monnet Сenters of excellence;
· Young musicians have been auditioning for a music academy which plans to become a new centre of excellence for the arts.
· The city was recognised as a centre of excellence in tertiary education and research.

Источники:
“Сentre of excellence”. Cambridge Dictionary.
British National Corpus.
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noun phrase

Citizen science is research conducted with participation from the general public, amateur/nonprofessional researchers or participants for science, social science and many other disciplines.
Гражданская наука

Примеры употребления:
· Citizen science can be used as a methodology where public volunteers help in collecting and classifying data, improving the scientific community's capacity.
· Over the past decade, citizen science has become a proven method of distributed data analysis, enabling research teams from diverse domains to solve problems involving large quantities of data with complexity levels which require human pattern r
· Citizen science encourages scientific literacy; promotes public awareness of environmental or societal issues; fosters a sense of community involvement and empowerment by allowing individuals to contribute directly to scientific projects that matter to them.
Синонимы: community science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, participatory monitoring, volunteer monitoring

Источники:
Fortson, L., Wright, D., Lintott, C.J., & Trouille, L. (2018). Optimizing the Human-Machine Partnership with Zooniverse. ArXiv, abs/1809.09738.
“Citizen science”. Wikipedia.
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noun phrase

Research that involves coordination between the researchers, institutions, organizations, and/or communities. It can be classified as voluntary, consortia, federation, affiliation, and merger and can occur at five different levels: within disciplinary, interdisciplinary, multi-disciplinary, trans-disciplinary or national vs international.
Cовместные исследования

Примеры употребления:
· At this time of dramatic intellectual, political and social change, the American Academy will foster collaborative research and the exchange of scholarly information.
· Collaborative research can bring distinct expertise to a project.
· Collaborative research has the capabilities for exchanging ideas across disciplines, learning new skills, access to funding, higher quality of results, etc.

Источники:

Bansal S, Mahendiratta S, Kumar S, Sarma P, Prakash A, Medhi B. Collaborative research in modern era: Need and challenges. Indian J Pharmacol. 2019 May-Jun;51(3):137-139. doi: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_394_19.
British National Corpus.
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verb phrase

To be engaged in asynchronous communication which is a type of computer-mediated communication that occurs in delayed time and does not require simultaneous participation of all participants, e.g. email, social media
Общаться в асинхронном формате

Примеры употребления:
· to communicate over the email asynchronously;
· With the advent of messaging apps, teams can collaborate effectively by communicating asynchronously, allowing members to contribute when it suits their schedules.
· One of the advantages of using collaborative documents is the ability to edit and comment asynchronously, making it easier for multiple contributors to work together efficiently.

Антоним: to communicate synchronously (as in chats or video conferences)

Источники:
Zakareya, Samah. (2012). Impact of Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Computer-mediated Communication on EFL Students’ Writing Performance.
British National Corpus.
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noun phrase

A variant of a case study research where two or more cases are involved in the same study
Метод сравнительного анализа кейсов

Примеры употребления:
· In this article, we argue for a new approach – the comparative case study approach — that attends simultaneously to macro, meso, and micro dimensions of case-based research.
· Strategies in comparative case studies include research on the basis of community, place, perspective, structure, system, scale, transects, gradients, time, events, analogs, or theory as organizing principles.
· There are no formal rules for evaluating comparative case studies, but reasonable criteria against which studies can be assessed do exist.

Источники:
Knight, C.G. (2001). International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences || Human–Environment Relationship: Comparative Case Studies. , (), 7039–7045. doi:10.1016/b0-08-043076-7/04195-4
Ylikoski, Petri & Zahle, Julie (2019). Case study research in the social sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 78 (C):1-4.
Bartlett, L., & Vavrus, F. (2017). Comparative Case Studies: An Innovative Approach. Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.7577/njcie.1929
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noun phrase

A theoretical or intellectual connection established between two or more disparate concepts, ideas, theories, or fields. It serves as a means to link, reconcile, or integrate these concepts, often facilitating a deeper understanding or providing a framework for analysis, discussion, or exploration.
Связь между концептами

Примеры употребления:
· to create conceptual bridges between the discourses;
· We propose that resilience, viewed as a stabilizing constellation, should be considered an important part of the conceptual bridge between coping and development.

Источники:
Leipold, Bernhard & Greve, Werner. (2009). Resilience A Conceptual Bridge Between Coping and Development. European Psychologist. 14. 40-50. 10.1027/1016-9040.14.1.40.
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noun phrase

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) refers to the ongoing process where individuals expand and enhance their skills, knowledge, and abilities within their profession or field of expertise after completing their formal education or initial training. It involves various activities, learning experiences, and training programs aimed at maintaining, updating, and developing professional competencies.
Непрерывное профессиональное развитие

Примеры употребления:
· As part of their commitment to continuing professional development, teachers regularly participate in reflective practices to improve their instructional strategies.
· Effective continuing professional development fosters a culture of lifelong learning among educators, ensuring they stay updated with the latest educational trends and research.
Синонимы: continuous professional development
Дополнительная информация: часто используется аббревиатура CPD.

Источники:
OECD (2009) Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
British National Corpus.
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noun phrase

A personality trait based on compliance with the rules which a society determines appropriate according to age and culture.
Культуросообразность, культурная конгруэнтность

Примеры употребления:
· Prior research is equivocal about whether leadership is more effective when it matches typical cultural practices (the cultural congruence argument) or compensates for "ineffective" cultural practices (the cultural compensation argument).
· This article proposes an emerging model of culturally-congruent care that can guide intervention for social workers, mental health professionals, nurses, and other health care workers caring for a diverse population of patients, families, and communities.

Источники:
Bayanova, Larisa & Kirill, Chulyukin. (2018). The impact of cultural congruence on the creative thinking of primary school children. Psychology of Russia: State of Art. 11. 61-70. 10.11621/pir.2018.0105.
Rockstuhl, T., Wu, D., Dulebohn, J.H. et al. Cultural congruence or compensation? A meta-analytic test of transformational and transactional leadership effects across cultures. J Int Bus Stud 54, 476–504 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41267-022-00559-x
Schim SM, Doorenbos AZ. A three-dimensional model of cultural congruence: framework for intervention. J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care. 2010;6(3-4):256-70. doi: 10.1080/15524256.2010.529023.
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noun phrase

Culturally responsive school leadership refers to those leadership philosophies, practices, and policies that create inclusive schooling environments for students and families from ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds.
Управление школой, основанное на принципах инклюзивности по отношению к представителям различных культур

Примеры употребления:
· сulturally responsive practices / learning environment;
· Increasing diversity in schools requires school leaders to act as bridge builders for students from various cultures and to embrace the concept of what is often referred to as culturally responsive leadership.
· Despite the frequent acknowledgement of these themes, culturally responsive school leadership or managing multicultural schools are not included in any of the government-funded training programmes for school leaders.
· Culturally responsive school leaders are responsible for promoting a school climate inclusive of minoritized students, particularly those marginalized within most school contexts.

Источники:
Brown, M., Altrichter, H., Shiyan, I., Rodríguez Conde, M. J., McNamara, G., Herzog-Punzenberger, B., Vorobyeva, I., Vangrando, V., Gardezi, S., O’Hara, J., Postlbauer, A., Milyaeva, D., Sergeevna, N., Fulterer, S., García, A. G., & Sánchez, L. (2022). Challenges and opportunities for culturally responsive leadership in schools: Evidence from Four European countries. Policy Futures in Education, 20(5), 580-607. https://doi.org/10.1177/14782103211040909
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noun phrase

Desk research is a type of research that relies on data that has already been collected and published by others. Its data sources include public libraries, websites, reports, surveys, journals, newspapers, magazines, books, podcasts, videos, and other sources. Desk research can be used to explore a new topic or problem; identify existing knowledge gaps; review the literature on a specific subject; find relevant data and statistics; analyze trends and patterns; evaluate competitors and market trends; support or challenge hypotheses; validate or complement field research
Кабинетное исследование, кабинетный анализ

Примеры употребления:
· The method involved a combination of desk research, in-depth case study and survey research.
· A five-phased approach begins with desk research, to identify and evaluate recent opinions of the contribution of marketing to corporate success.
· Desk research vs field research

Дополнительная информация:
Другим важным методом исследовательской работы наряду с desk research является field research. О разнице см. словарную статью field research.
Синонимы: desk-based research, desk review, documentary research, secondary research.
Desk review также употребляется в контексте финансовой отчетности, напр.: Desk reviews are focused examinations of the relevant documentation and financial systems surrounding a grant program.

Источники:
Desk Research: Definition, Types, Application, Pros & Cons. FormPlus.
“Desk research”. Cambridge Dictionary.
British National Corpus.
Preparing for Desk Reviews and Site Visits. Guide Sheet. The Office of Justice Programs Territories Financial Support Center.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

A digital divide refers to new forms of social inequality derived from the unequal access to the new information communications technologies, by gender, territory, social class, etc.
Цифровое неравенство

Примеры употребления:
· to bridge the digital divide;
· It is significant that institutions of global governance have recently put the issue of digital divide in their agenda.
· Therefore, there must be an aggressive agenda to bridge the digital divide between developing and developed countries.
· The digital gap between countries and individuals on access to education is growing.
Синоним: digital gap

Источники:
Mínguez, A. M., Ballesteros, E. C. The Digital Divide in Education in the Knowledge Society. Encyclopedia of Networked and Virtual Organizations. 2008, Pages: 6 DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-885-7.ch057
“Digital divide”. Cambridge Dictionary.
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noun phrase

Digital transformation can refer to anything from IT modernization (for example, cloud computing), to digital optimization, to the invention of new digital business models. The term is widely used in public-sector organizations to refer to the initiatives of introducing IT technologies into their regular operations, such as putting services online or legacy modernization.
Цифровизация, цифровая трансформация (какой-либо сферы деятельности, напр., образования)

Примеры употребления:
· Digital transformation in education is enhancing teaching and learning delivery using technology to improve effectiveness and efficiency, supporting student progression, and enhancing the quality of teaching methods like online learning.
· Digital transformation enables schools and universities to analyze data collected through students’ use of technology in the classroom to track performance and improve outcomes.
Дополнительная информация:
Термин digital transformation более употребим, чем digitalization.

Источники:
Digital Transformation. Gartner Information Technology Glossary
Digital transformation in education: Deliver the right technology. Digital Adoption.
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noun phrase

Data that has been broken down by detailed sub-categories, for example by marginalised group, gender, region or level of education. Disaggregated data can reveal deprivations and inequalities that may not be fully reflected in aggregated data.
Данные с разбивкой по позициям.

Примеры употребления:
· A lot of “disaggregateddata in education is actually data that has been technically aggregated, at some level, from records maintained on individual students.
· Disaggregating student data into subpopulations can help schools and communities plan appropriate programs, decide which evidence-based interventions to select (i.e. have they been evaluated with the target population), use limited resources where they are needed most, and see important trends in behavior and achievement.

Дополнительная информация:
To aggregate data is to compile and summarize data; to disaggregate data is to break down aggregated data into component parts or smaller units of data.

Источники:
Disaggregated data. Right to Education Glossary.
The Importance of Disaggregating Student Data. National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention.
Aggregate data. The Glossary of Education Reform.
Tilda Publishing
noun

The state or quality of being different or varied; the inclusion of people of different races, genders, religions, etc in a group
Многообразие

Примеры употребления:
· Cultural diversity, ethnic diversity;
· We are an equal opportunities employer committed to diversity in the workplace.
· Learning about and understanding diversity in the classroom can enhance the perspective of both prospective and developing teachers in many ways as they engage with the realities of today’s classrooms.
· Diversity in education refers to different social identities of students and teachers. Types of diversity in the classroom include:
- Ability diversity (differences in students’ physical, mental, and learning abilities);
- Ethnic diversity (differences in race, ethnicity, national origin, and languages spoken at home);
- Religious diversity (differences in belonging to and identifying with the values and/or practices of a particular religion);
- Socioeconomic diversity (differences in income, education levels, occupations, and housing security and stability);
- Experiential diversity (differences in students’ life experiences, such as immigration, military service, adoption, or foster care).

Источники:
“Diversity”. Collins Dictionary.
Diversity in the Classroom: Teaching, Types, and Examples. School of Education, American University.
Tilda Publishing
phrasal verb

здесь: to use or exploit (a source, fund, etc.)
обращаться к

Примеры употребления:
· to draw on knowledge, experience;
· Adaptive executives encourage collaborative procedures that draw on knowledge from the entire company and its networks.
· From there a new art, drawing on Greek and Roman traditions and transformed by fresh intellectual and spiritual impulses from farther east, evolved and radiated outward.

Примечание: у данного фразового глагола также есть другие значения.

Источники:
“Draw on”. Collins Dictionary.
“Draw on”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
phrasal verb

To prepare a draft or version of; to prepare something in writing, esp. plans or a formal document Разрабатывать

Примеры употребления:
· National Agencies will draw up inclusion and diversity plans to best address the needs of participants with fewer opportunities and to support the organisations working with these target groups in their national context.
· Our first priority must therefore be to work towards achieving a common understanding about the aims of in-class support teaching, and then draw up clear guidelines about the implications of those aims in terms of our classroom practice.

Источники:
“Draw up”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Priorities of the Erasmus+ Programme. European Commission.
British National Corpus.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

The ecology of knowledge is a theory that examines the relationship between humans and the body of knowledge. It views knowledge as a distinct element of the human environment and a rapidly growing factor in human life. The theory emphasizes the interdependence of various factors in a dynamic system, similar to the relationships studied in the field of ecology. The theory emphasizes the need to understand the consequences of knowledge, both positive and negative including the importance of recognizing and respecting the epistemological diversity of the world, particularly the knowledge systems of different social groups, and promotes the idea of pluralism of knowledges to facilitate the democratization and decolonization of knowledge and power.
Экология знаний

Примеры употребления:
· The ecology of knowledges is an invitation to the promotion of non-relativistic dialogues among knowledges, granting 'equality of opportunities' to the different kinds of knowledge.
· The ecology of knowledges represents the possibility of opening up the dominant canon of knowledge and recognition, by bringing into the picture other, alter native, non-scientific knowledges.
Синонимы: ecology of knowledges

Источники:
Wojciechowski, J. (2009). Ecology of Knowledge. The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy
Santos, B. S. (2007). Another knowledge is possible: Beyond northern epistemologies. London: Verso.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

A guess based on knowledge and experience and therefore likely to be correct
Обоснованное предположение; предположение, основанное на знаниях, опыте

Примеры употребления:
· A prognosis can necessarily be only an educated guess.
· A guesstimate may be a first rough approximation pending a more accurate estimate, or it may be an educated guess at something for which no better information will become available.

Источники:
“Educated guess”. Oxford Reference.
“Educated guess”. Cambridge Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

The highest degree of education an individual has completed
Уровень полученного образования

Примеры употребления:
· level of educational attainment; highest educational attainment;
· Educational attainment is usually measured with respect to the highest education program successfully completed, which is typically certified by a recognized qualification.
· The evidence strongly indicates that employers are not especially concerned with the educational attainment of young workers in those sectors of the labour market in which such individuals tend to seek employment.
· Since educational attainment is strongly linked to social class, some of the ostensible differences in achievement between ethnic groups may be reflections of these class differences.
Дополнительная информация: термин активно используется в социологических опросах.

Источники:
International Standard Classification of Education. ISCED 2011. UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
Tilda Publishing
adj.

Supported by a large amount of scientific research
Основанный на доказательствах; экспериментально подтвержденный; научно обоснованный

Примеры употребления:
· evidence-based research;
· These scholars draw on diverse theoretical approaches and often use both qualitative and quantitative methods to conduct evidence-based analyses.
· Further research is needed to evaluate the most effective way of delivering evidence-based interventions in general practice and incorporated into training programmes.
· Many now propose that guidelines be evidence-based, which involves supporting recommendations with rigorous research evidence.

Источники:
“Evidence-based”. Cambridge Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
noun

That which is required in a particular situation
Нужда, запрос, потребность; острая необходимость

Примеры употребления:
· Decolonizing knowledge calls for greater recognition of the validity and applicability of diverse sources of knowledge to the exigencies of the present and future.
· The exigencies of research funding usually require measurement of outcome after a relatively short period, which we have done.
Примечание: как правило, употребляется во множественном числе.

Источники:
“Exigency”. Merriam-Webster.
Reimagining our futures together: a new social contract for education. (2021). UNESCO.
Tilda Publishing
noun

A short, printed or digital document with information about a particular subject
Информационный лист, факт-лист

Примеры употребления:
· In an environmental fact sheet, researchers demonstrate the immense impact this new toxic trade sector has on workers and the environment.
· A separate fact sheet on legal liabilities is available on request to governing bodies of self-governing grant-maintained schools.

Источники:
“Fact scheet”. Collins Dictionary.
“Fact scheet”. Cambridge Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
noun

The possibility that something can be made, done, or achieved, or is reasonable
Жизнеспособность, осуществимость

Примеры употребления:
· The findings indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed model.
· This level of description is sufficient for an engineer to consider initial design feasibility.
· Thus, most analyses are undertaken at their request, prioritized according to their urgency and feasibility.

Источники:
Feasibility. Cambridge Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Field research is a method of research that deals with understanding and interpreting the social interactions of groups of people and communities by observing and dealing with people in their natural settings. The field research methods involve direct observation, participant observation, and qualitative interviews.
Полевое исследование; исследование на местах

Примеры употребления:
· Field research adopts a wide range of social research methods, such as limited participation, direct observation, document analysis, surveys, and informal interviews.
· Ethnography is a form of field research that carries out observation through social research, social perspective, and the cultural values of a social setting.

Дополнительная информация:
О разнице с desk research:
The main difference between field research and desk research is the source of data. Field research uses data that is collected directly from the respondents or participants of the study. Desk research uses data that is collected by someone else for a different purpose.
Синонимы: field review, primary research

Источники:
What is Field Research: Meaning, Examples, Pros & Cons. FormPlus
Tilda Publishing
adj.

Здесь: detailed, in-depth, or involving fine detail
Подробно представленный, тщательно проработанный

Примеры употребления:
· The analyses of the research aims are not sufficiently fine-grained.
· The system thus has the ability to access words from variably fine-grained descriptions of their phonological characteristics.
· Modern studies of this kind can take into account many fine-grained features of both the physical and the social environment.

Источники:
Fine-grained. Collins Dictionary.
British National Corpus.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

A flipped classroom is a type of blended learning where students are introduced to content at home and practice working through it at school. This is the reverse of the more common practice of introducing new content at school, then assigning homework and projects to completed by the students independently at home.
Педагогическая технология "перевернутый класс"

Примеры употребления:
· The flipped classroom intentionally shifts instruction to a learner-centered model, in which students are often initially introduced to new topics outside of school, freeing up classroom time for the exploration of topics in greater depth, creating meaningful learning opportunities.
· A teacher's interaction with students in a flipped classroom can be more personalized and less didactic, and students are actively involved in knowledge acquisition and construction.

Источники:
The Definition of the Flipped Classroom. Teach Thought. https://www.teachthought.com/learning/definition-flipped-classroom/
Tilda Publishing
adj.

Considering future developments when making plans, especially in relation to using modern methods or equipment
Прогрессивный, инновационный

Примеры употребления:
· a forward-looking project / approach / attitude;
· a forward-looking company / organization;
· In today's rapidly evolving business climate, this forward-looking approach may fall short.
· The book concludes with a forward-looking proposal to elicit regional integrated water resources management.
Синонимы: progressive, modern, reforming.

Источники:
“Forward-looking”. Collins Dictionary.
“Forward-looking”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
noun

The art of obtaining grants for research through the process of grant writing
Умение получать гранты на научные исследования путем написания успешных грантовых заявок
Примеры употребления:
· His skills included grantsmanship and fund-raising.
· The art of "grantsmanship" will not turn mediocre science into a fundable grant proposal. But poor "grantsmanship" will, and often does, turn very good science into an unfundable grant proposal.

Источники:
Kraicer J. (1997). The Art of Grantsmanship. https://www.hfsp.org/sites/default/files/webfm/Communications/The%20Art%20of%20Grantsmanship.pdf
Tilda Publishing
adj.
Relating to, being, or providing direct practical experience in the operation or functioning of something
Прикладной

Примеры употребления:
· hands-on skills / experience / learning / activity;
· Apprenticeships are about learning hands-on skills and gaining experience in the workplace.
· On the course, the youth learn various job skills in a hands-on learning environment.
· His hands-on knowledge enables him to present a more informed reading of the data he gathered from archival research, interviews, and observation.
Синонимы: practical, interactive, participatory

Источники:
“Hands-on”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
“Hands-on”. Collins Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
adj. phrase

Involving reasoning of a high level
Высшего порядка

Примеры употребления:
· higher order thinking / theoretical level / cognitive skills;
· In approaching any historical document there should be a progression from lower order to higher order thinking.
· Some worksheets may begin with simple lower order questions, leading on to a higher order question.
· Theories are deductive systems of thought in which "facts" are deduced from higher order principles.

Источники:
“Higher-order”. Oxford English Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
verb

to make more acute, intense, or effective
совершенствовать

Примеры употребления:
· to hone skills / talents;
· We focus intently on helping you hone critical thinking skills, define your creative abilities and master your communication skills.
· In the interim years, Rosenfeld honed his craft, moving to Los Angeles working for Hecho Studios and Vice, developing documentaries.

Источники:
“Hone.” Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
British National Corpus.
Tilda Publishing
verb

to permeate or influence as if by dyeing
Насыщать

Примеры употребления:
· to imbue learning;
· Service learning can imbue learning with a strong sense of purpose.
· In a media environment increasingly characterized by a cacophony of voices, the homogeneity of the single, clear voice on the radio imbues huge power—even if that power comes without any guarantee of objectivity.

Источники:
“Imbue”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/imbue.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Coming in; inward bound
Входящий, прибывающий

Примеры употребления:
· inbound students / student mobility / flight;
· Inbound students are students registered at a foreign university that attend your institution on international exchange programs for at least one semester during the annual reporting period.
· A high percentage of inbound mobility rate indicates a high degree of participation of students from abroad, and a strong capacity of the host country’s education system to attract international mobile students.

Дополнительная информация:
Inbound students – студенты, приезжающие в университет в рамках программ студенческой мобильности как минимум на один семестр;
Inbound student mobility – входящая студенческая мобильность.

Источники:
“Inbound”. Collins Dictionary.
Inbound Mobility Rate. The Glossary of the UNESCO Institute of Statistics.
Inbound and Outbound Exchange Students. QS Quacquarelli Symonds
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

An Informational Interview is a conversation in which a person seeks insights on a career path, an industry, a company and/or general career advice from someone with experience and knowledge in the areas of interest.
Неформальная деловая беседа

Примеры употребления:
· When you are curious about a particular industry, job, or person, an informational interview can be a valuable tool for gaining insights that cannot be found in everyday research.
· Embrace the informational interview to gain industry insights and build connections.

Источники:
Informational interview. Coursera.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase
Informed decision-making is the process in which a decision is made based on facts or information. When facing a decision with significant complexity, risk, cost or consequences, executives need apply informed decision-making, which complements intuitive aspects of uninformed decision-making with information and logic.
Принятие решений с учетом всех имеющихся данных; компетентное принятие решений

Примеры употребления:
· The department assists and encourages informed decision-making, research and discussion within governments and the community, by providing a high quality, objective and responsive national statistical service.
· Informed business decision-making is the cornerstone of any successful business strategy.

Синонимы: evidence-based decision-making.


Источники:
Informed Decision-making. MBA Brief. Concept Definitions.
Informed Decision-making. Collins Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Inquiry-based learning is a process of learning that engages learners by creating real-world connections through high-level questioning and exploration. Instead of simply absorbing information, students are encouraged to explore and discover knowledge on their own.
Исследовательское обучение

Примеры употребления:
· Inquiry-based learning is about triggering curiosity in students and initiating a student’s curiosity.
· Inquiry-based learning allows students to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills, as well as a deeper understanding of the subject matter.

Источники:
A teachers guide to inquiry-based learning. Structural Learning.
Tilda Publishing
noun

The activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill
Преподавание, методика преподавания

Примеры употребления:
· Instruction is a plan of teaching & learning activities in which learning is organized.
· Сompletion rates for online courses are usually significantly lower than for courses where instruction occurs face-to-face.
· A recent study found that teachers across different countries infrequently adapt their instruction to student characteristics
Синонимы: didactics, education, educational activity, pedagogy, teaching.

Источники:
“Instruction”. Vocabulary.com
Direct Instruction: A Teacher’s Guide. Structural Learning.
Raes, A., Vanneste, P., Pieters, M., Windey, I., Van Den Noortgate, W., & Depaepe, F. (2020). Learning and instruction in the hybrid virtual classroom: An investigation of students’ engagement and the effect of quizzes. Computers & Education, 143, 103682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103682
Smale-Jacobse, A. E., Meijer, A., Helms-Lorenz, M., & Maulana, R. (2019). Differentiated instruction in secondary education: A systematic review of research evidence. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02366
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Instructional design is a complex process that promotes creativity during development and results in instruction that is both effective and appealing to students. Instructional design models convey guiding principles for analyzing, producing, and revising intentional learning contexts.
Педагогический дизайн

Примеры употребления:

· Instructional design is a process used to generate curriculum, courses, teaching units and single episodes of guided learning.
· Effective instructional design models need to be sensitive to different educational contexts and responsive to complex teaching and learning issues.
· Instructional design is characterized by five major activities: (1) analysis of the contexts and the needs of the learner; (2) design of a set of specifications for an effective, efficient, and relevant learning environment; (3) development of all student and course management materials; (4) implementation of the planned instruction; (5) evaluation of the results of the design processes, both formative and summative.

Дополнительная информация: ранее более распространенным был термин instructional systems design / instructional development.

Источники:
Branch, R., Dousay, T. (2015). Survey of instructional design models. 10.1163/9789004533691.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Instructional leadership is a model of school leadership in which a principal works alongside teachers to provide support and guidance in establishing best practices in teaching. Principals employing this model of leadership communicate with their staff and together set clear goals related to student achievement. In this model, teachers are supported by the principal. The principal provides coaching and mentoring to those teachers who require it, as well as professional development opportunities that allow teachers to explore best practices in teaching.
Педагогическое лидерство

Примеры употребления:
· In order to promote student learning, principals who enact instructional leadership will have a clear vision for their school and will communicate this vision to their staff.
· Instructional leadership does not come without challenges, and principals reported that they do not have enough time and knowledge to be effective instructional leaders or that they are uncomfortable commenting on teachers’ classroom practices.
· Instructional leadership is leadership in teaching, it does not include administrative work.

Источники:
Brolund, L. (2016). Student success through instructional leadership. BU Journal of Graduate Studies in Education, 8(2), 42–45.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

The main speech at a formal gathering such as a conference
Пленарное заседание (в рамках конференции)

Примеры употребления:
·The keynote speech delivered by Prof. Sandra Simpkins (University of California Irvine, the US) set the tone by exploring the diversity and quality features of extended education.
·The World Education Research Association accepts invitations for keynote and symposia sessions at WERA Association Members' conferences to expand its footprint and presence beyond the annual focal meetings.
Синонимы: keynote address.

Источники:
“Keynote speech”. Collins Dictionary.
World Education Research Association.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

High-level workers who apply theoretical and analytical knowledge in product and service development
Работники информационного общества

Примеры употребления:
· Advanced economies are service-based, with labor markets split between highly skilled knowledge workers and low skilled service workers.
· Knowledge workers are сomprised of pharmacists, public accountants, engineers, architects, lawyers, physicians, scientists, financial analysts, and design thinkers.
· Knowledge workers are said to think for a living, unlike manual laborers who are paid for performing physical tasks.
· Most people worked in traditional types of knowledge work professions such as those of teachers, ministers, and writers.

Источники:
“Knowledge worker”. Cambridge Dictionary.
Knowledge workers. Corporate Finance Institute.
Tilda Publishing
phrasal verb

To work in a way that makes your manager able to do their work effectively
Работать на опережение; собственная эффективная работа с целью помочь своему руководителю

Примеры употребления:
· Managing up is a soft skill centered around using the traits of a good manager to help you bring out the best in yourself as an employee.
· A great way to manage up when it comes to communication is to understand your manager’s preferred communication channels.

Источники:
“Manage up”. Cambridge Dictionary.
Guide to managing up: What it means and why it’s important Culture Amp.
Tilda Publishing
adj.

Active involvement and collaboration of various entities, including governments, international organizations, businesses, civil society, and other stakeholders, to address specific objectives or goals.
Коллегиальный; с привлечением нескольких заинтересованных сторон

Примеры употребления:
· multi-stakeholder learning
· Both the private sector and NGOs have played a significant role in organizing and participating in multi-stakeholder consultations and workshops on important financing for development issues.
· The notion of global partnerships and multi-stakeholder approaches are now very much accepted to be an integral part of the multilateral cooperation

Источники:
Dodds F.: Multi‑stakeholder partnerships: Making them work for the Post‑2015 Development Agenda. Global Research Institute, University of North Carolina, 2015.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

A teacher who enters the teaching profession at a given level of education for the first time during the school year.
Молодой учитель; учитель в начале карьеры

Примеры употребления:
· Among all the working perplexities faced by newly employed teachers, teaching problems are the largest ones.
· The gains of mentoring programmes are substantial for both newly employed science teacher and mentor teachers.
Синонимы: early career teacher, newly recruited teacher

Источники:
Newly recruited teachers. The Glossary of the UNESCO Institute of Statistics.
Okoi, O.O. (2019). Mentoring the Newly Employed Science Teachers in Secondary Schools for Effective Service Delivery.
Mi, G. (2014). A Survey & Analysis of the Initial Teaching Perplexities Faced by Newly Employed Teachers in Elementary & Secondary Schools. Journal of Tianjin Normal University.
Tilda Publishing
adj.

Invented or produced very recently
Новоиспеченный

Примеры употребления:
· newly minted scholars – ученые, недавно получившие научную степень / молодые ученые
· These grants are addressed to newly minted scholars to deepen their expertise.
Синонимы: recently minted / freshly minted.

Источники:
Newly/freshly minted. Longman Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
adj.

Deserving attention because of being important or interesting
Стоящий внимания

Примеры употребления:
· noteworthy experiences;
· It is particularly noteworthy how this kind of approach can bring out details rather than merging them into general trends.
· It is noteworthy, amongst many reasons, for its fluency in the idioms of ecology and social science as well as more recondite post-structuralism.

Источники:
“Noteworthy”. Cambridge Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Occupational expectations refer to the beliefs and hopes that individuals have for their future careers, particularly in relation to their educational experiences and the development of their professional identities.
Профессиональные ожидания

Примеры употребления:
· Higher educational attainment leads to stability, higher prestige scores, and differences in occupational expectations between males and females.
· In a different study, the students’ perspectives regarding their occupational expectations affected the quality of their education as well as their success during their education.

Источники:
Cevik, Beste & BAYOGLU, Talia & Canbey, Ebru. (2017). The Occupational Expectations of Undergraduate Students in the Conservatory Piano Majors. International Education Studies. 11. 1. 10.5539/ies.v11n1p1.
Adamuti-Trache, M., & Zhang, Y.L. (2023). Uncertainty and change in American youth occupational expectations. Journal of Education and Work, 36, 202 - 219.
Tilda Publishing
adj.

Travelling away from a particular point
Исходящий

Примеры употребления:
· outbound students / student mobility / flight;
· Outbound students are students of your university that attend a foreign university on an international exchange program for at least one semester during the annual reporting period.
· A high outbound mobility ratio indicates a high outflow of students from the specific country for study purposes, which may reflect a low retention capacity of students by the national tertiary education system.

Дополнительная информация:
outbound students – студенты, уезжающие в университет-партнер в рамках программ студенческой мобильности как минимум на один семестр.
outbound student mobility – иcходящая студенческая мобильность

Источники:
Inbound and Outbound Exchange Students. QS Quacquarelli Symonds.
Outbound mobility ratio. UNESCO Institute of Statistics.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Out-of-school enrichment refers to unique educational experiences that engage and challenge students outside of the traditional school setting. It can include extracurricular activities, mentoring programs, culturally based programs, and other formats such as summer camps, Saturday programs, and afterschool activities.
Внеклассное обучение

Примеры употребления:
· out-of-school enrichment programmes / activities;
· An out-of-school enrichment program goes much further in providing an academic intervention.
· The fact that an out-of-school enrichment camp can have a positive effect on high-ability students from a low socioeconomic or culturally diverse background is promising to researchers and practitioners.
· After-school enrichment activities and classes can include academics, sports, arts, and more, and are offered with the goal of providing entertainment and enjoyment, while sharpening and fleshing-out student skill sets.
· With after-school enrichment, one approach is to have kids dive into large projects that can be broken up over a number of days, with kids chipping away and progressing during each sitting.
Синонимы: after-school enrichment.

Источники:
Hodges, J., McIntosh, J., & Gentry, M. (2017). The Effect of an Out-of-School Enrichment Program on the Academic Achievement of High-Potential Students From Low-Income Families. Journal of Advanced Academics, 28(3), 204-224. https://doi.org/10.1177/1932202X17715304
Barone R. (2023). Ultimate List of Enrichment Activities, After-School Classes & Programs. ID Tech.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Participatory evaluation means involving stakeholders, particularly the participants in a programme or those affected by a given policy, in specific aspects of the evaluation process.
Оценка с участием заинтересованных сторон

Примеры употребления:
· Participatory evaluation gives those who are often not consulted - line staff and beneficiaries particularly - the chance to be full partners in determining the direction and effectiveness of a project.
· When young people carry out participatory evaluations, a facilitator skilled in capacity building and in promoting participation may be the key to success.

Источники:
Guijt, I.M. (2014). Participatory Approaches. Methodological Briefs Impact Evaluation No. 5. UNICEF Office of Research, Florence.. 10.13140/RG.2.1.4948.1768.
Participatory Evaluation. Community Toolbox. https://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/evaluate/evaluation/participatory-evaluation/main
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

In education, the provision a school makes to ensure the physical and emotional welfare of pupils which is the essential foundation upon which learning can take place.
Обеспечение психоэмоционального благополучия обучающихся
· Schools with high standards of pastoral care go far further than a basic commitment to welfare, with pastoral care extending to every aspect of school life in order to foster pupils’ personal development as much as their academic progress.
· Good pastoral care in school is also fundamental to the development of character and social skills, which will be of critical importance to pupils in later life.
· In many private schools in Australia, usually Catholic schools, homeroom is referred to as pastoral care group, "pastoral period", or simply "pastoral", where the teacher is called a pastoral care advisor.

Дополнительная информация:
При переводе термина "воспитание" на английский язык в некоторых контекстах может использоваться вариант "pastoral care", который является более предпочтительным варианту "upbringing".

Источники:
What is pastoral care in schools? Girl’s Day School Trust.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

A process by which something proposed (as for research or publication) is evaluated by a group of experts in the appropriate field
Рецензирование

Примеры употребления:
· Once the study is complete, it will be subject to peer review.
· That measurement of quality is heavily dependent on peer review mechanisms, and the burden of proof of peer review quality lies with the submitting university.
· Instead, the reports would go through an external peer review process.

Дополнительная информация:
peer review report – рецензия

Источники:
“Peer review.” Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
adj.

Central and important
Основополагающий, ключевой, принципиально важный

Примеры употребления:
· a pivotal figure/role/idea;
· to play pivotal roles in promoting educational research
· Here, as elsewhere, the pivotal notion is choice - and, more particularly, rational choice, positioned as the essence of human action.
· The project co-ordinator played a pivotal role in the establishment and maintenance of the research network.

Источники:
“Pivotal”. Cambridge Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
noun

A limited period of time, usually forming part of a course of study, during which someone works for a company or organization in order to get work experience, which may be paid or not paid.
Производственная практика; стажировка в организации; в образовании – педагогическая практика

Примеры употребления:
· school placement / work placement;
· All the students are undertaking work placements in local businesses one day a week for 12 weeks.
· A school placement, like those in other community situations, usually allows time to be divided between personal work and participation in discussions, teaching and similar activities.
· Placements beyond urban schools and early childhood settings offer significant learning opportunities for pre-service teachers.
· Ensuring communities, students and schools/early childhood settings have positive experiences during pre-service teacher placements is crucial.

Дополнительная информация:
The term “school placement” replaces the term “teaching practice” as it more accurately reflects the range of teaching and non-teaching activities involved. It is a critical part of initial teacher education (ITE) as it enables the student teacher to experience teaching and learning in a variety of contexts, and to participate in school life in a way that is structured and supported.

Источники:
“Placement”. Cambridge Dictionary.
“Work placement”. Cambridge Dictionary.
Pre-service teacher placements beyond urban settings. Pre-service teacher placements beyond urban settings. The Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership.
Donlon, E., McDonald, E., Fitzsimons, S., & Sexton, P. (2020). Being and Belonging: Student-Teachers’ Contextual Engagement in Schools. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 45(6). https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2020v45n6.6
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

In education, practitioner research involves one or more people who are both practitioners (e.g. teachers) and are researching that practice. Unlike some other forms of research, practitioner research is intended to solve problems and enhance practice rather than developing theory.
Исследования, проводимые специалистами-практиками

Примеры употребления:
· Practitioner research may be seen an effective model of inquiry-based continuing professional development, since it is one way to embody the notion of a teacher as a lifelong learners.
· Practitioner research could also inform policy through providing insights 'from the field' by those closest and most concerned with classroom life.
Синонимы: action research

Источники:
Practitioner research. EdFutures.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

A problem statement is an explanation in research that describes the issue that is in need of study. The purpose of the problem statement is to identify the issue that is a concern and focus it in a way that allows it to be studied in a systematic way.
Постановка проблемы (исследования)

Примеры употребления:
· The problem statement is your opportunity to explain why you care and what you propose to do in the way of researching the problem.
· Having a problem statement allows the reader to quickly understand the purpose and intent of the research.
· Not all problems have only one solution so demonstrating the need for additional research can also be included in your problem statement.

Дополнительная информация:
Problem statement is a necessary element of research studies including research proposals or academic papers in the IMRAD format.

Источники:
What is a Problem Statement? Elsevier.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Problem-based learning is a student-centered approach in which students learn about a subject by working in groups to solve an open-ended problem. This problem is what drives the motivation and the learning.
Проблемно-ориентированное обучение

Примеры употребления:
· a problem-based learning approach;
· Problem-based learning uses complex, real-world issues as the classroom's subject matter, encouraging students to develop problem-solving skills and learn concepts instead of just absorbing facts.
· For example, a problem-based learning project could involve students pitching ideas and creating their own business plans to solve a societal need.
· Instead of sitting back, listening and taking notes, problem-based learning puts students in the driver's seat.

Дополнительная информация: часто используется аббревиатура PBL.

Источники:
Problem-based Learning. Center for Teaching Innovation. Cornell University
Leming M. What is problem-based learning? The Hun School of Princeton.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

The public sector is the part of a country's economy which is controlled or supported financially by the government.
Государственный сектор экономики, бюджетные организации

Примеры употребления:
· The distinction of the public sector from the private sector is relatively straightforward—it is evident in terms of employment relationships and the right of exercising public power.
· public-sector employees / public-sector bodies / public-sector jobs
· As we move up the wage hierarchy, the educational backgrounds and career patterns of public-sector and private-sector employees become more distinct.

Дополнительная информация:
public school – государственная школа

Источники:
“Public sector”. Collins Dictionary.
“Public sector”. Cambridge Dictionary.
“Public sector”. Britannica.
Tilda Publishing
noun

An activity that one engages in as a vocation, profession, or avocation
Деятельность

Примеры употребления:
· academic / research / scholarly pursuit;
· Pursuit is an urge in search of an accomplishment beyond known boundaries.
· It is naive to think that successful research, like any lifelong academic pursuit, can be reduced to a pithy, simplistic formula.
· The inquiry into an emerging 'regional' architecture can co-exist as both an academic pursuit and a quest of practice.

Источники:
“Pursuit”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
“Academic pursuit”. Cambridge Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
noun

The area of one's competence; the area of responsibility or influence that a person or organization has
Cфера компетенций; зона ответственности / влияния / интереса

Примеры употребления:
· within/outside the purview of smb/smth;
· Raising the funds is outside the purview of this committee.
· Some of the bank's lending operations come within the purview of the deputy manager.

Источники:
“Purview”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
verb phrase

A process that seeks to inform and educate people about a topic or issue with the intention of influencing their attitudes, behaviours and beliefs towards the achievement of a defined purpose or goal
Повышать осведомленность

Примеры употребления
· Use the right messenger to raise awareness.
· Children and young people can be instrumental as a target group to raise awareness of the Sustainable Development Goals.
· There are multiple awareness-raising strategies, methods and tools that can be used to convey and spread messages, and to gather the support necessary to influence public opinion.

Дополнительная информация:
Awareness-raising – просветительская деятельность

Источники:
Raising Awareness through Public Outreach Campaigns. SDG Accountability Handbook.
Tilda Publishing
noun

General: a reasoned exposition, espesially one defining the fundamental reasons for a course of action, belief, etc.
In science: The rationale for one’s research is the justification for undertaking a given study. It states the reason(s) why a researcher chooses to focus on the topic in question, including what the significance is and what gaps the research intends to fill. In short, it is an explanation that rationalises the need for the study.
Логическое обоснование, аргументация

Примеры употребления:
· There was a stronger rationale for reform and both international and domestic factors played important roles.
· It is important to describe the rationale of your research in order to put the significance and novelty of your specific research project into perspective.

Источники:
“Rationale”. Collins Dictionary.
How to write the Rationale for your research. Charlesworth Author Services.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Research Integrity means conducting research in such a way that allows others to have confidence and trust in the methods and the findings of the research. It relates both to the scientific integrity of conducted research and to the professional integrity of researchers. Key elements of research integrity include: honesty, rigour, transparency and open communication, care and respect of all participants, accountability.
Добросовестность в исследовательской деятельности

Примеры употребления
· Research integrity includes the use of honest and verifiable methods in proposing, performing, and evaluating research.
· Within the University, conducting research with integrity also means meeting the professional standards expected of our researchers.
· National Institute of Health expects everyone involved in research, including investigators, trainees, administrators and NIH staff, will promote research integrity in fulfillment of NIH's research mission.

Источники:
The Concordat to support research integrity. (2019). Universities UK.
What is Research Integrity. Grants & Funding. NIH Central Resource for Grants and Funding Information.
Definition of research integrity. University of Bath.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Adherence to principles and procedures, methods, and techniques that minimize bias and error in the collection, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of data.
Точность исследований

Примеры употребления:
· Rigor can be defined as the degree to which research methods are scrupulously and meticulously carried out in order to recognize important influences occurring in the process of conducting the research.
· It is a criteria-based definition that views research rigor in terms of three characteristics: (1) it is systematic in its inquiry; (2) it employs an appropriate design for the questions being asked; (3) it asks challenging questions.

Источники:
Gill, T. & Gill, Tommy. (2020). What is Research Rigor? Lessons for a Transdiscipline. Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline. 23. 047-076. 10.28945/4528.
Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Glossary of Key Terms. Colorado State University
Tilda Publishing
noun

1. the process and outcome of successfully adapting to difficult or challenging life experiences, especially through mental, emotional, and behavioral flexibility and adjustment to external and internal demands.
2. the ability of an ecosystem to return to its original state after being disturbed.
Гибкость, устойчивость

Примеры употребления:
· career resilience;
· Flexibility, adaptability, and perseverance can help people tap into their resilience by changing certain thoughts and behaviors.
· Resilience theory refers to the ideas surrounding how people are affected by and adapt to challenging things like adversity, change, loss, and risk.
· A resilient society not just tries to respond to disruption and crisis by trying to bring the system back into balance, but rather tries to develop solutions that bring a system in a new state that is capable of dealing with present and future challenges.

Источники:
“Resilience”. American Psychological Association
“Resilience”. Collins Dictionary.
United Nations ESCAP. (2017) Transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies in South and South-West Asia
Tilda Publishing
noun

A detailed plan to guide progress toward a goal
Дорожная карта; рекомендации

Примеры употребления:
· to propose a roadmap of concrete actions;
· Drawing inspiration from real leaders and emphasizing hands-on mentorship, this article aims to provide a practical road map for achieving impactful and authentic leadership.
· Setting specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound (SMART) goals provides a road map for success, offering direction and motivation during challenging times.

Источники:
“Road map”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
verb

To make a new product, service, or system available for the first time
Внедрять, запускать

Примеры употребления:
· to roll out measures;
· The SALTO Resource Centres supporting the implementation of the programme are also key players in promoting and rolling out inclusion and diversity measures, in particular as regards to gather knowledge and to conceive and run capacity-building activities for National Agency staff and programme beneficiaries.
· The charity is in discussions with other local authorities about rolling the scheme out more widely.

Источники:
“Roll out”. Collins Dictionary.
Priorities of the Erasmus+ Programme. European Commission.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

A salary increment is an addition made to an employee's annual pay that differs from a bonus. Employers use increments to either raise or lower base salaries and to adjust compensation. This form of salary increase differs from bonuses and commissions, which usually depend on performance. An increment typically rewards staying in a company for a long period of time or reflects changes in the employment market.
Надбавка к заработной плате

Примеры употребления:
· One-time salary increments are pay increases which employers award to their employees as a single amount.
· An annual salary increment is spread across each salary payment throughout the year.

Источники:
Salary Increment: What It Is and How You Can Negotiate It. Indeed
Tilda Publishing
noun

In education, scaffolding refers to a variety of instructional techniques used to move students progressively toward stronger understanding and, ultimately, greater independence in the learning process. The idea of scaffolding is close to the Lev Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development.
Букв. перевод "строительные леса"; в образовании – постепенное обучение по принципу от простого к сложному

Примеры употребления:
· instructional scaffolding;
· Scaffolding is widely considered to be an essential element of effective teaching, and all teachers—to a greater or lesser extent—almost certainly use various forms of instructional scaffolding in their teaching.
· Like physical scaffolding, the supportive strategies are incrementally removed when they are no longer needed, and the teacher gradually shifts more responsibility over the learning process to the student.
· For example, if students are not at the reading level required to understand a text being taught in a course, the teacher might use instructional scaffolding to incrementally improve their reading ability until they can read the required text independently and without assistance.

Источники:
Scaffolding. The Glossary of Education Reform.
Скаффолдинг: что такое теория строительных лесов и как применять её в обучении. Skillbox.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Individuals, groups of people, organizations, or institutions with representativeness in a certain territory or society in general.
Представители сообщества / групп сообщества

Примеры употребления:
· Social actor theory posits that the social actors play various roles to produce goods and services through interactions with other actors in various contexts both internal and external organizations.
· In an analysis of collective identity, context is crucial, because the representation of social actors is shaped, if not determined, by discursive and social practices and formations.
· Seldom a single actor is able to make changes but rather a collection of social actors should leverage resources through interactions to build and sustain innovation within organizations.

Синонимы: societal actor

Источники:
Primo, Paola & Antunes, Michele & Ramos, Mariela & Siqueira, Carlos & Oliveira, Adauto & Mendes, José. (2021). Internet Information Monitoring System: A Digital Tool for Emergencies, Crises, and Disasters. 10.4018/978-1-7998-6705-0.
N. Nurdin, R. Stockdale and H. Scheepers, ""The Role of Social Actors in the Sustainability of E-Government Implementation and Use: Experience from Indonesian Regencies,"" 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Waikoloa, HI, USA, 2014, pp. 2263-2272, doi: 10.1109/HICSS.2014.285.
Tilda Publishing
noun

One who organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise without the help of a partner, a solo entrepreneur
Индивидуальный предприниматель

Примеры употребления:
· Career opportunities for solopreneurs are on the rise, with an annual projected growth of 3.6% for independent workers.
· An individual who works as a solopreneur manages every aspect of their business and does not heavily rely on delegating tasks to others to get things done.
· Solopreneurs tend to start their businesses to offer a specific niche offering and are focused on building a steady customer base to keep their business profitable but are not looking to expand.
Производное: solopreneurship

Источники:
“Solopreneur”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
6 Differences Between a Solopreneur and Entrepreneur. Hubspot.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

In education, the term stakeholder typically refers to anyone who is invested in the welfare and success of a school and its students, including administrators, teachers, staff members, students, parents, families, community members, local business leaders, and elected officials such as school board members, city councilors, and state representatives.
Участник социальных отношений; в образовании – участник образовательных отношений.

Примеры употребления:
· In a word, stakeholders have a “stake” in the school and its students, meaning that they have personal, professional, civic, or financial interest or concern.
· Stakeholders may also be collective entities, such as local businesses, organizations, advocacy groups, committees, media outlets, and cultural institutions, in addition to organizations that represent specific groups, such as teachers unions, parent-teacher organizations, and associations representing superintendents, principals, school boards, or teachers in specific academic disciplines.
· While every stakeholder in education is concerned with assessment in one way or another, it is undeniable that the teachers play pivotal roles in assessment.

Дополнительная информация: часто переводится на русский язык как "стейкхолдер"

Источники:
Stakeholder. The Glossary of Education Reform.
White E., Delaney T. (2018). Handbook of Research on Assessment Literacy and Teacher-Made Testing in the Language Classroom. Information Science Reference. Doi 10.4018/978-1-5225-6986-2
Tilda Publishing
adj.
Very modern and using the most recent ideas and methods; the level of development (as of a device, procedure, process, technique, or science) reached at any particular time usually as a result of modern methods
Cамый передовой, современный

Примеры употребления:
· The remaining sections will describe the state-of-the-art information- and knowledge-management practices and technologies (along with their constituents) in use in the construction sector.
· To systematize postgraduate education and supervision, a graduate school system, established in 1995, combines state-of-the-art research with training programs.
· This special issue presents the state-of-the-art in methods for robust natural language processing and understanding.

Источники:
State-of-the-art. Cambridge Dictionary.
State-of-the-art. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Tilda Publishing
noun phrase

Evaluation of individual teachers in order to make a judgement about their work and performance
Оценка эффективности работы учителей

Примеры употребления:
· If well designed, teacher appraisal and feedback systems can be used as a tool to increase teacher effectiveness and achieve better student learning outcomes.
· Teacher appraisal is regulated by a framework established by top-level authorities in three-quarters of European education systems.
· It is worth mentioning that regulations on the frequency of teacher appraisal changed over the last years in some countries.

Источники:
Motiejūnaitė-Schulmeister, A., De Coster, I., Davydovskaia, O. (2021). Teachers in Europe: Сareers, development and well-being. Publications Office of the European Union. European Education and Culture Executive Agency, European Commission.
Teacher appraisal. Education GPS. OECD.